This late-date (circa 2000) map was created from 1999 and 2000 Landsat imagery, processed through cluster analysis and manual editing procedures.
Field data were collected by Space Imaging analysts in early June 2003, using windshield surveys ground measurements and aerial photo interpretations. In the field, polygons were drawn on the imagery for extraction of training data. At the time of the field visits, the change detection had already taken place, so the areas of change could receive special attention in the field. Data were collected to the land-cover level of the C-CAP classification, unlike the Michigan classification, for which field data were collected to Anderson level IV.
During this time, the Landsat scenes selected for the classification were georeferenced to the existing land cover classification for Southern Ontario, balanced, and mosaicked. The signature data were then extracted to form the training site database for each date. The summer mosaics were classified to Anderson level 1 using statistical cluster analysis with ERDAS Imagine and S-plus statistical software. Once the result was satisfactory, the seven level 1 classes were separately classified to Anderson level 2 using the same techniques. Fall (senescence) and spring imagery were used in conjunction with the summer imagery to separate various level 2 cover types. Fall imagery was used to differentiate the level 3 broadleaf species, since the turning of the leaves aids in separation of broadleaf types. Differences between spring and summer images were used to classify some wetland types using differences in water levels. Differentiation of urban types (high-intensity/low-intensity) was often made using a thresholding technique in Landsat band 1 (blue).
As the area of this classification was small, the decision was made to forego ancillary data modeling and proceed with the manual editing. One reason for this was that Canadian data at the spatial resolution needed was not easily acquired, and those datasets that were available were of low quality.
Manual editing was used to complete the classification, and to address additional comments made by NOAA CSC.
Includes areas dominated by single stemmed, woody vegetation unbranched 0.6 to 1 meter (2 to 3 feet) above the ground and having a height greater than 6 meters (20 feet).
Includes areas in which more than 67 percent of the trees remain green throughout the year. Both coniferous and broad-leaved evergreens are included in this category.
Areas dominated by woody vegetation less than 6 meters in height. This class includes true shrubs, young trees, and trees or shrubs that are small or stunted because of environmental conditions.
Includes all nontidal wetlands dominated by woody vegetation greater than or equal to 6 meters in height, and all such wetlands that occur in tidal areas in which salinity due to ocean-derived salts is below 0.5 parts per thousand (ppt).
Includes all nontidal wetlands dominated by woody vegetation less than or equal to 6 meters in height, and all such wetlands that occur in tidal areas in which salinity due to ocean-derived salts is below 0.5 ppt.
Includes all nontidal wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs, persistent emergents, emergent mosses, or lichens, and all such wetlands that occur in tidal areas in which salinity due to ocean- derived salts is below 0.5 ppt.
Includes all tidal wetlands dominated by woody vegetation less than or equal to 6 meters in height, and all such wetlands that occur in tidal areas in which salinity due to ocean-derived salts is above 0.5 ppt.
Characterized by erect, rooted, herbaceous hydrophytes (excluding mosses and lichens) that are present for most of the growing season in most years. Perennial plants usually dominate these wetlands. All water regimes are included except those that are subtidal and irregularly exposed.
Characterized by substrates lacking vegetation except for pioneering plants that become established during brief periods when growing conditions are favorable. Erosion and deposition by waves and currents produce a number of landforms, such as beaches, bars, and flats, all of which are included in this class.
Includes persistent snow and ice persist for greater portions of the year.