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print-ready factsheet Soil Erosion Control Practices Along Detroit's Urban Waterfront
The Detroit River, MI

Grantee: Detroit/Wayne County Port Authority
Basin Program Funds: $25,000
Non-federal Funds: $14,438
Project Duration: 06/2000 - 10/2001
Status: complete

Problem Statement
Many river shorelines have been stabilized and hardened with concrete and steel to provide passage for commercial navigation or industry, to protect developments from flooding and/or to control erosion. Such hard engineering techniques are expensive and provide no habitat for fish or other aquatic life. Opportunities exist along the Detroit River, an American Heritage River, to demonstrate and implement soft engineering techniques that will not only control erosion and enhance wildlife habitat, but will also improve the aesthetics and save money..

Erosion at Belle Isle

Background
The Detroit River is one of the most biologically diverse areas in the Great Lakes basin and provides a good opportunity to raise awareness of the need to restore and protect habitat using soft engineering techniques. Soft engineering uses native plants in combination with geotextile fabrics to stabilize the shoreline. Demonstration projects of soft engineering techniques have already been implemented at ten locations along the Detroit River including this most recent demonstration in Belle Isle, a 980 acre park located in the Detroit River. Project staff chose Lake Muskoday on the northeastern end of Belle Isle, as a demonstration site primarily because of its proximity to a road and the existing severe erosion problems that presented a challenge to concerned stakeholders.

Many organizations collaborated with the Detroit/Wayne County Port Authority in this demonstration and site stabilization effort, including members of the Greater Detroit American Heritage Rivers Initiative, the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) and NTH Consultants, Ltd, who provided technical support for the design. The City of Detroit Recreation Department provided the site on Belle Isle. Project staff applied for and obtained a permit, identified locations for harvesting “live” and “inert” plant material, submitted a request for proposals and selected a contractor.

Activities
Project staff organized a two-day workshop that included classroom instruction and hands-on experience implementing the soft engineering techniques on the shore of Lake Muskoday. Over 40 public officials, private contractors, regulators, landscape architects and city maintenance workers participated in the workshop and subsequent work day. Many of these people were already involved in soft engineering projects or interested in learning the techniques for controlling erosion.

Prior to the workshop, the contractor, Cameron Contracting of Wixom, Michigan, prepared the site by removing broken concrete and trash, sloped the soil and laid down a grass matting to protect the site from further erosion. Project staff obtained live plant materials several days before the workshop. During the workshop, participants learned about the techniques they were going to be employing in the field and shared insights from previous projects with which they had been involved.

The contractor cut back the eroded banks with a backhoe and excavated to provide a place for the geotextile fabric. Volunteers then installed live fascines, brush mattresses and vegetative geogrids above the rock toe to further stabilize the shoreline.

Fascines used at Lake Muskoday

Fascines are bundled branches, usually willow or dogwood, that are tied together with twine. Inert fascines were used along the shoreline, while live fascines were used further up slope. Brush mattresses are made from live willow and/or dogwood branches and are used in a similar fashion as erosion control netting. The mattresses are secured to the slope with dead stout stakes. The vegetated geogrid process involves placing rock riprap at the edge of the shoreline and then creating steps up the slope of the shoreline using a geotextile mattress. Live cuttings are placed in between each step.

Successful stabilization at Lake Muskoday

Results
Project staff and volunteers stabilized over 300 feet of shoreline along Lake Muskoday, enhancing the environment for waterfowl and fish population and reducing soil erosion, keeping an estimated 15 pounds of soil, 160 pounds of phosphorus and 32 pounds of nitrogen from eroding into the Detroit River. The volunteers gained a great deal of knowledge and first-hand experience about the benefits and challenges of stabilizing shorelines using soft engineering techniques. This information will prove useful as they are faced with similar problems in the future. Beyond the one and a half year grant period, project staff expect to reach an additional 200 elected officials and public agencies with this demonstration project.

Project staff, in partnership with many organizations, agencies and private consultants, succeeded in demonstrating innovative soft engineering techniques along the Detroit River. Through this process, Belle Isle visitors will learn about the alternatives to hard engineering, as they are exposed to the aesthetically pleasing shoreline of Lake Muskoday. The stablization of Lake Muskoday has also enhanced the wildlife habitat along the lake. The Port Authority's long term hope is that this project will inspire on large-scale and more efficient and cost-effective shoreline erosion control methods along Detroit's Belle Isle and the Detroit River as a whole.

Contact: John Kerr, (313) 331-3842

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Great Lakes Commission des Grands Lacs.  2805 S. Industrial Highway, Suite 100.  Ann Arbor, MI  48104-6791.  phone: 734/971.9135.  fax: 734/971-9150.  projects.glc.org. GLIN Partner